Profile for Arch Ritter

Archibald Ritter is a Canadian citizen living in Ottawa Canada, married with five children and some grandchildren. He is a “Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus” in the Department of Economics and the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University in Ottawa.

He holds a BA in Economics from Queen’s University, an MA in Economics from the University of Western Ontario and a Ph.D. in Economics with a minor in Latin American Studies from the University of Texas at Austin.

Besides his employment at Carleton University, he has worked in the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean in Santiago Chile (1973-1974), the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, Government of Canada (1979-1981) and has also lived and worked in Kenya and Tanzania.

 He has had a long interest in Cuba beginning perhaps with the chance reading of “Listen Yankee” by C. Wright Mills (an effective piece of propaganda). Or maybe it began with a previous interest in the French Revolution – which ran amok. But maybe the real origin of his obsession with Cuba was that his Father smoked White Owl cigars, which at that time were made from Cuban tobacco but wrapped in Connecticut leaf. For this reason, being in Cuba has always felt like being at home. He has visited Cuba frequently since 1965. He was an initiator on the Canadian side and was the coordinator on the Canadian side for the Masters in Economics Program provided with the University of Havana for young Cuban professors from 1994 to 1999, financed by the International Development Research Centre and the Canadian International Development Agency.

He has published a variety of works on Cuba’s development policies and experience including The Economic Development of Revolutionary Cuba: Strategy and Performance, New York: Praeger 1974; Cuba in the International System: Integration and Normalization, (editor), London: Macmillan, 1995; with co-editor J. Kirk; The Cuban Economy, (editor), Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004 and with co-author Ted Henken,  Entrepreneurial Cuba: The Changing Policy Landscape, Lynne Rienner, 2015.

Another recent work by Ritter is a textbook, entitled African Economic Development, Routledge, United Kingdom, 2018 with co-authors Steven Langdon and Yiagadeesen Samy.

 Curriculum Vitae, May 2018


Some Recent Publications and Presentations Mainly on Cuba and Some Down-Loadable:

Entrepreneurial Cuba: The Changing Policy Landscape, with co-author Ted Henken, Lynne Rienner, Boulder Colorado, 2015

EL VI CONGRESO DEL PARTIDO Y LOS LINEAMIENTOS : ¿Un punto de viraje para Cuba?” ,Espacio Laical, Suplemento Digital No.132 / 16 de Junio 2011

English Language Version:  Espacio Laical, “The Sixth Party Congress and “Lineamientos”: A Turning Point for Cuba?”

“The Cuban Economy, Revolution, 1959-1990,”  in Cuba: People, Culture, History, Editor in Chief: Alan West-Durán,  Editorial Board: Victor Fowler Calzada, Gladys E. García Pérez, Louis A Pérez, Jr., César Salgado, Maria de los Angeles Torres, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2011.

  “The Cuban Economy during the Special Period 1990-2010,”   in Cuba: People, Culture, History Editor Alan West-Durán, Editorial Board: Victor Fowler Calzada, Gladys E. García Pérez, Louis A Pérez, Jr., César Salgado, Maria de los Angeles Torres, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2011.  

“U.S.-Cuba Relations: the Potential Economic Implications of Normalization”, in Debating U.S.-Cuban Relations: Shall We Play Ball? Editors: Rafael Hernandez, Jorge Dominguez and Lorena Barberia, New York: Routledge,  2011  

Review Article:“Shifting Realities in ‘Special Period’ Cuba”, Latin American Research Review, Volume 45 No. 3, 2010, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2010  

Estados Unidos-Cuba: potenciales implicaciones económicas de la normalización,” in TEMAS, Havana Cuba, Special Issue: Cuba-Estados Unidos: tan lejos, tan cerca, Editor: Rafael Hernandez.  

“Canada’s Economic Relations with Cuba, 1990-2010 and Beyond,” in Canadian Foreign Policy, SPECIAL SECTION – The Politics of Canada-Cuba Relations: Emerging Possibilities and Diverse Challenges Volume 16, Issue 1 (Spring 2010)  

Key Note presentation, “Cuba: Current Challenges and Alternate Economic Futures” Power Point Presentation: March 2008, Bildner Centre for Western Hemisphere Studies, City University of New York, New York  

“Economic Illegalities and the Underground Economy in Cuba,” FOCAL (Canadian Foundation for the Americas) Background Briefing on Cuba, Ottawa: March, 2006  

 “Survival Strategies and Economic Illegalities in Cuba,” in Cuba in Transition, Volume 15, Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, 2005  

“Cuba’s Underground Economy,” Carleton Economic Papers, CEP 04-12, August 18, 2004

“An Overview of Cuba’s Economy in the 2000′s: Recuperation and/or Relapse,” Carleton Economic Papers, 03-03, June 2003  

The Cuban Economy (Editor) Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press,  2004  

Cuba: Dollarization and De-Dollarization,” in Dominick Salvatore, James W. Dean, and Thomas D. Willet (Editors) The Dollarization Debate, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, Chapter 24, pp. 425-448  

Cuba: From ‘Dollarization’ to ‘Euro-ization’ or ‘Peso Re-Consolidation’?  in Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Summer 2002), pp. 99–123;

 “Cuba’s Economic Performance and the Challenges Ahead,” February 2002, Background Briefing, RFC-02-1, FOCAL, Ottawa Canada

“Cuba: From ‘Dollarization’ to ‘Euro-ization’ or Peso Re-Consolidation”? Carleton Economic Papers, 00-13, October 2000  

 “El Regimen Impositivo para la Microempresa en Cuba,Revista de La CEPAL, No. 71, Santiago de Chile, Agosto 2000,pp.145-162

.Also in English as “The Tax Regime for Micro-Enterprise in Cuba, CEPAL Review, No. 71, Santiago Chile, August 2000, pp.139-156.

“Entrepreneurship, Microenterprise and Public Policy in Cuba: Promotion, Containment or Asphyxiation?” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 40:2, Summer 1998, pp. 673-694  

” The Dual Currency Bifurcation of Cuba’s Economy in the 1990s: Causes, Consequences and Cures,” CEPAL Review, No 57, Santiago Chile, December 1995, pp.113-132.

Also available in Spanish translation as “La dualidad del tipo de cambio en la economía cubana de los noventa”, Revista CEPAL No 57, Diciembre 1995

  “Canada: From Fly-In Fly-Out to Mining Metropolis,” in G. McMahon and F. Remy, (editors,) Large Mines and the Community: Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada and Spain, World Bank, Washington DC, and International Development Research Center, Ottawa, 2001  

 “La Aglomeracion Minera en Canada; Estrutura, Evolucion y Funccionamiento,” in Rudollf. M. Buitelaar, Extraer Minerales y Producir Desarrollo: Potencialidades y Limitaciones de Aglomeraciones en Torno a la Mineria en America Latina, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago Chile and IDRC, Noviembre de 2001.

Journalistic Publications:

“LIVES LIVED: David Harold POLLOCK,” The Globe and Mail, Thursday December 20, 2001, with Pat O’Manique

“LIVES LIVED, Allan QUINN,” The Globe and Mail. Monday November 10, 2003, with Bev Quinn.  

 “Cuba 2006: La ‘Revolucion Energetica’ Generateds a ‘Quick Fix’”, in FOCALPoint, Spotlight on the Americas, FOCAL (Canadian Foundation for the Americas,) Ottawa: May 2006  

 “Obama, Cuba, and Latin America: Renewal and Reconciliation?FOCALPoint, November 2008, Volumen 7,Number 8  

Is Cuban impasse inevitable? March 12, 2009, Globe & Mail, Toronto Canada  

“Cuba’s Bloggers: Is Cuba Relaxing Restrictions on Freedom of Expression?FOCALPoint, September 2009, Volume 8, Number 6

13 Responses to Profile

  1. Antonio says:

    Thanks for the new blog, I was wondering if you had a story/ summary/ opinion on the much mentioned “Rectification of Errors” period of the Cuban economy that was ended around 1986, I think. It is mentioned a lot but I have not come across many specific details. My understanding of this rectification is that is was abandoned because it threatened govt. control of the economy.

    Also, what lessons does this period have for the individuals trying to loosen govt. control of the economy, specifically the agricultural sector.

  2. Ted Henken says:


    I’m liking your blog more and more each day. Great photo and I like your new “blogroll.”

    Hasta Pronto.

    El Yuma

  3. Thanks for the new blog, I took some years of reading his articles about our country and always find very interesting, and very objective. I wish to ask you, if these current measures of openness to small businesses, could become a great alternative for foreign investment funds. Until now, it may soon increase the amount of family remittances to be invested in family businesses. You think that the government supports foreign investment in sectors where there is self-employment and may be of interest of the country such as agriculture?

    Daniel Austin

  4. Daniel Austin says:

    Minister of Economy of Cuba rejected a wholesale market for self-employed workers in the coming years, therefore, would have to buy their raw materials and technologies to retail prices.
    Do you think that this could increase inflation in Cuba?

  5. Dr. Archibald says:

    Hello there,

    I have been following your Cuban economy blog off and on for about half year now, and have generally felt quite satisfied with it, in terms of it’s more less neutral tone and academic rigor. I do however feel that in the last month or two, the tone has become rather judgmental (in an unhelpful way) unlike in the past. I find this situation unfortunate, and hope there aren’t any ideological motivations behind it, that it simply be a fluke so to speak.

    Misuta Arukibarudu… (ahem, Dr. Archibald)

  6. Tremendous issues here. I am very happy to look your post. Thank you so much and I am looking forward to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?

  7. Andra says:

    Thank you for your blog. I needed academic sources for a research paper, and you have provided a plethora of solid sources, as well as piqued my interest in the Cuban economy. Your posts are thoughtful and enjoyable. Well done, sir.

  8. L G Fuentes says:

    Does this site have a newsletter that goes via email. If it doesn’t, it really should.

  9. I just found this blog and I am planning to read it all. I am a Cuban-Canadian residing in Ottawa, Ontario. It’s kind of surprising that there is so much on Cuba’s economy written by a foreign specialist.

  10. Michael Wiggin says:

    Arch, I really enjoy your blog and especially, your recent book “Entrepreneurial Cuba: The Changing Policy Landscape”. My interest in Cuba has been largely stimulated by you and your work and I have recently returned from my 5th visit in about 6 years. Each visit reveals more change and significant growth in the self employment sector and in the renovation of Havana. My contacts with Cubans has increased and while most that I have spoken to believe things can get better, most also appreciate the progress in basic nutrition, education and healthcare. Most also spoke favourably about the changes being introduced by Raul Castro and are also positive about his successor, Manuel Diaz Canel. The fluency and openness of young students was also a positive indicator. There is much to be done, but I think that things seem to be on the right track. Many foreigners expect big changes with the lessening of the US embargo, but my impression, from talking to Cubans, is that change will evolve in a slow and deliberate manner so that the social progress is not jeopardized but enhanced by control on the manner in which foreign investment evolves. Thanks again for your efforts and your blog. Michael Wiggin

    • Arch Ritter says:

      Hi Mike:
      Thanks for the kind words. However, regarding Cuba being on the “right track” take a look at the “HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2016 WORLD REPORT chapter on Cuba.
      Posted on January 28, 2016 by Arch Ritter

      Original Report: World Report 2016, Cuba

  11. Rodrigo Castro says:

    Professor Ritter,

    It is so amazing to see you still working and writing on this blog. I was honoured to be one of your students at Carleton and to share friendships from our Chilean roots. I congratulate you on your continued work.

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